What is Climate Change and Global Warming 2021:
Climate Change and Global Warming: In 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, the Ramokov Convention on Climate Change was signed by 160 countries. The adoption of this Convention is an unconditional recognition of the fact that climate change is a universal problem.
Ambient temperature is one of the most important conditions for life. The main mechanisms that ensure the stability of temperature on the Earth’s surface are solar radiation and the greenhouse effect.
The phenomenon of the greenhouse effect is that after reflection from the Earth’s surface, part of the solar energy is not completely dissipated in outer space. A significant share of thermal radiation is held by greenhouse gases that are part of the Earth’s atmosphere.
Due to this, the temperature rises by 33 ° C. Without the greenhouse effect, the temperature near the Earth’s surface would not exceed -18 ° C, which means that there are no living conditions because water on the Earth’s surface would exist only in the form of ice.
Long-term monitoring revealed a pronounced tendency to increase the average annual temperature. Most experts attribute this phenomenon to an increase in the concentration of gases, which is commonly called greenhouse. Anthropogenic emissions of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2 O (belonging to the group of greenhouse gases) can significantly increase the greenhouse effect. This may result in an increase in the average annual temperature over the next century by 2-5 ° C.
This process will not occur evenly. In some regions, the temperature will change faster, in others slower. The result will be a change in wind circulation and redistribution of precipitation. This, in turn, will lead to increased humidity in some regions and drought in others. Changes in temperature, rainfall, and sea level will affect people’s lives.
The impact of global warming will be particularly significant in coastal areas. Some of them will simply disappear. Soil erosion will increase significantly, floods will become more frequent, coastal lands will be flooded, and the number of unprofitable wetlands will increase.
In agriculture, the need for irrigation measures will increase, yields and quality of crops will change, and this, in turn, will affect the livestock.
In the energy sector, hydropower will be the most vulnerable.
Climate Change Solutions
Ways to solve the problem: reduce emissions and increase greenhouse gas sinks.
Use of technologies such as heat pumps, solar energy.
The natural greenhouse effect on Earth is maintained due to the age balance between greenhouse gas emissions and their retention by sinks. The largest absorbers of carbon dioxide, which accounts for about 70% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, are the ocean and terrestrial biomass. Thus, deforestation and additional forest cover can significantly reduce anthropogenic pressure on the Earth’s climate.
On the other hand, reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the introduction of environmentally friendly technologies, improving energy efficiency, as well as the use of alternative (renewable) energy sources can significantly affect the trend of climate change.
CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVES
The Climate Change Initiative Information Center operates in Kyiv to assist the Government of Ukraine in fulfilling its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Center collects, analyzes, and organizes information on programs and projects of international assistance to Ukraine related to various aspects of climate change. The Center’s activities are aimed at creating a national organizational structure to address climate change, develop climate policy, help find investment in projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as involve NGOs and industry in measures to mitigate the impact of climate change.
The task of the Climate Change Initiatives is to assist in establishing international cooperation in Ukraine by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Among the activities of the Center:
- Assistance in developing a national organizational structure for climate change
- Methodological issues on climate change
- Preparation of investment projects
- Raising public awareness on climate change
- Implementation of the curriculum
Assistance in developing a national organizational structure for climate change. According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, participating countries have the opportunity to receive targeted investments aimed at reducing the anthropogenic impact on climate change. To this end, Ukraine needs to establish an organizational structure and relevant bodies for conducting inventories and certification of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as participation in the international mechanisms of the Convention. The Center assists in the analysis and development of possible options for the national organizational structure. In addition, the Center assists Ukraine in complying with UNFCCC requirements, as well as funding the participation of Ukrainian delegations in international forums.
Methodological issues on climate change.
The Center assists Ukraine in implementing the recognized methodologies required for the implementation of the National Program, which includes emission inventory, monitoring, and assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. To disseminate the experience of international experts on climate change, training courses are held for Ukrainian specialists. With the support of the Center, Ukrainian experts are preparing an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector.
Preparation of investment projects.
Ukraine’s participation in the UN Framework Convention creates conditions for international cooperation and investment attraction. The center assists in identifying investment projects and developing business plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants, district heating systems, industrial plants, and coal mines. The center is looking for investment projects and assists Ukrainian specialists in preparing business plans and other documents necessary for their implementation.
Raising public awareness on climate change.
The center distributes a monthly newsletter containing Ukrainian and international news on climate change. The newsletter (with an archive of past issues), a calendar of world events on climate change, information on climate protection activities in Ukraine, contact information about experts involved in solving the problem of climate change in Ukraine, and other materials can be found on this site.
Together with non-governmental organizations and representatives of the industrial sector, the Center disseminates information to the population of Ukraine about the causes and consequences of global climate change. Through its website, TV and radio programs, and the distribution of printed materials, the Climate Change Initiative promotes the formation of a national consensus on climate action.
Implementation of the curriculum.
This activity is aimed at officials, business leaders, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and experts on climate change.
The main topics of study are:
- The main provisions of the problem of global climate change
- Economic aspects of climate change
- Emissions trading mechanisms
- Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions
- Mitigation of anthropogenic impact on climate change
- Monitoring, evaluation, reporting, verification, and certification of GHG emission reductions
- Determination of basic project-oriented emission levels
- Project preparation and financing
- Carbon absorption in forestry and agriculture
The Center cooperates with a wide range of Ukrainian and foreign specialists to develop strategies and determine areas of study.